Wednesday, November 8, 2017

社会の宿題です! Jeffersonian Project

THOMAS JEFFERSON

BIOGRAPHY
Thomas Jefferson was born in Shadwell, Virginia on April 13, 1743. He was one of the rich people at the time, and had a good education. He loved to learn and find new things, he also had great ideas and he was very smart. Jefferson wanted to be a lawyer and he was admitted to the bar. After this he started to be a lawyer but he stopped his job because the American Revolution started.
He wanted to be a part of the American Revolution. He wanted everyone else to be excited for the American Revolution too, so he talked to everyone. Most of the people knew Thomas Jefferson, and after the American Revolution he wrote The Declaration of Independence. This was written so America could show England that they are free. Everyone was so excited about this and thought that Jefferson wrote it well.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS
After writing The Declaration of Independence, he became governor of Virginia. During the war, the British attacked Virginia and Jefferson ran away. Everyone got mad at Jefferson, and he lost his house and later his wife died. After this Jefferson joined Congress. He worked with Adams and Franklin in Europe. He came back in 1789, and was told by George Washington to be Secretary of State.

He was chosen by the Republicans to be their presidential candidate. When the election came he tied with Burr and Jefferson became President. Because of this election, the 12th Amendment passed Congress and made it so the citizens will vote separately for the President, and the Vice President. During Jefferson’s first term, there was the Louisiana territory purchase from France. This made America twice as big. After this Jefferson made Lewis and William Clark explore everywhere. It took 2 years for them to explore, but it gave lots of information to them.
Jefferson got elected for another term, and he had 70% of the votes. At this time France and England were having a war, and America was trying it’s best not to be involved in it. Jefferson passed the Embargo of 1807. This actually hurt America and the Embargo lasted for 2 years but the U.S. ended up having a war with Britain in 1812. When Jefferson was done with his second term, he came back home and studied about things that he wanted to know. He helped found the University of Virginia. After this he died at the age of 83, on July 4, 1826. This was the day when Adams died as well.

IMPACT
Thomas Jefferson has made much impact on America, and I found some parts and things that I liked about him. The first big thing he did was writing The Declaration of Independence. When he wrote this, he wasn’t President yet, but he still made everyone trust and respect him. The Declaration of Independence was a big thing to America. This made America show England that they were a free country. Jefferson wrote this, which was a big thing to everyone, and made everyone respect him. I thought that this was the most surprising and great thing that he did. After a while he became President, and he made Lewis and William Clark explore everywhere. Lewis and William found interesting things while they traveled, and because Jefferson sent them out, America could know more about their country. Lastly, I was very surprised about how everyone respected Jefferson. After his first term, he started his second term. When he became President again, he had 70% of the votes. This meant that everyone loved him, and wanted him to be President. I think that being a person that could be respected by everyone, is a great skill to have.



BIOGRAPHY
James Madison was born on March 16, 1751, in Port Conway, Virginia. He was the oldest of 12 children, and he was raised on a family plantation. A family plantation was like a farm and his plantation’s name was Montpelier. The Montpelier was made by his grandfather and there were more than 100 people working there.
When he was 18 years old he left home to go to University in New Jersey. This is now known as Princeton University. After graduating University, he was interest in America and Britain’s relationship. So he joined the revolution, but he was too small and weak to be in the army. Instead of being in the army, he worked on politics. When he was working in Virginia legislature, he met Thomas Jefferson.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS
After meeting Jefferson he noticed that the Articles of Confederation was not working. Knowing about this, he started to study other countries’ governments to make America’s government better. Madison thought of the idea of Checks and Balances. In May 1787, he went to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia to tell his idea. His idea was to have three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial. He took a lot of notes so he was known as the “Father of the Constitution.” He also wrote some essays for the “The Federalist”, and after this he served from 1789 to 1797 in U.S House of Representatives. Madison wrote the Bill of Rights. At this time Hamilton gave his opinions to everyone else, but Madison and Jefferson didn’t agree with Hamilton’s opinions. So they created the Democratic-Republican Party.
In 1794, he married with Dolley Payne Todd. After all of this, he got back into government. In 1801, he became Thomas Jefferson's secretary of state. The Embargo Act of 1807 was a bad idea for America. This act was supposed to help ships from getting captured by Britain or France. And when this act happened, it made it so boats couldn’t trade, which hurt America a lot. In 1808, Madison won the election and became President. The government and American declared war on Britain in June of 1812.
After this, Madison won another election and became President for another term. The war was bad and in 1814, Britain attacked Maryland, and they burned down the white house and the capitol. After the Battle of New Orleans in 1815, the war ended with signing of the Treaty of Ghent. In the end, Madison helped creating the University of Virginia, and after working in the government he went back home. He died on June 28, 1836.

IMPACT
James Madison has many impacts on America, and I found some parts that was interesting about him. First, before he was President, he noticed that the Articles of Confederation was not working the way America wanted. So he chose to study about other countries’ governments to make America’s government better. I thought that this was a great part about Madison. I could tell that he wanted to help the government, and he loved to study about it as well. I also thought that because he wanted to study about the government, he made America a better country than before. After this, he joined some meetings and other things that are connected to the government, and he took lot of notes about everything he heard. This made everyone call him, “Father of the Constitution.” I could tell that he was respected from everyone, and he also wrote the Bill of Rights. This was a big thing to the citizens and to America. Doing all of these great things that helped America, he became President in 1808. After his first term he became President for another term. I thought that everyone loved Madison, and respected him a lot.


BIOGRAPHY
James Monroe was born on April 28, 1758 in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He entered the College of William and Mary. When he was 18, he left college to go fight in the Revolutionary War. During the war, he met Thomas Jefferson and he learned law from Jefferson. They were good friends, so Monroe bought a farm next to Jefferson's house.
He was a delegate in the Virginia Assembly. In 1786, he married Elizabeth Kortright. In Congress, Monroe supported Madison a lot, and he supported the Constitution as well. The problem was that Monroe believed in the government not being too strong. So he was nervous about the Constitution being made. Monroe also helped Democratic-Republican Party.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS
After this, President Washington chose to make Monroe the minister of France. Being the minister of France, Monroe came back to America. And in 1802, he was asked by President Jefferson to go to France again. When he was in France, he helped purchase the Louisiana territory. After this, there was a problem about Britain stealing ships, and Monroe thought that Jefferson and James Madison didn’t handle this problem well. So their relationship got bad, but this didn’t last long. When Madison was President, Monroe was the secretary of state.
In 1816, Monroe became President. During his Presidency was called the “Era of Good Feelings.” One conflict during his Presidency was with Spain. This was the problems with the Indians. Spain owned Florida, and the Indians that lived in Florida kept attacking America. But Monroe got to buy Florida from Spain so America can handle this problem with the Indians by itself. Because America was getting so huge after buying Florida, there was lot of money problems. And the 4 years after this, was a bad economy. This was called the Panic of 1819. After this there was another problem. The North wanted no more slavery, and the South wanted it. When Missouri wanted to be a state, they chose to be a slave state. Maine joined as a free state. Monroe tried to avoid fighting with the Missouri Compromise. So he made signed the compromise in 1820, and it outlawed slavery in the Louisiana Territory above the parallel 36°30’ north.
Monroe was President again for another term. With the help of his secretary of state, John Quincy Adams, Monroe spoke of a Monroe Doctrine. Doctrine is a way of life. His Doctrine was European countries were forbidden to come to the American continents. At this point, everyone liked the Doctrine. After this, he died on July 4, 1831 at the age of 73.

IMPACT
James Monroe has many impacts on America, and I found some parts that was interesting about him. He wasn’t President yet when he did most of his jobs. His first big job was asked by Washington. President Washington asked Monroe to go to France and be the Minister of France. I thought that this was a very big part of Monroe, because at this time Washington was the President, and being asked by the President is a big thing. After working at France, he went to France again. He helped purchase the Louisiana territory. The Louisiana Purchase was a very big thing for America, and Monroe did most of the work to make this happen. In 1816, he became President, and while his Presidency was called “Era of Good Feelings.” I thought to be called like this was a great part about Monroe. After a while of his Presidency, he spoke of a Monroe Doctrine. This Monroe Doctrine showed how America was independent. This was another big thing that Monroe did to help America. I thought that Monroe must've been respected by everyone at this time.


Works Cited
"James Madison." Biography.com, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <https://www.biography.com/people/james-madison-9394965>
"James Madison." Encyclopaedia Britannica, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-Madison>
"James Madison." Encyclopedia of World Biography, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <http://www.notablebiographies.com/Lo-Ma/Madison-James.html>
"James Madison." History.com, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/james-madison>
"James Monroe." Biography.com, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <https://www.biography.com/people/james-monroe-9412098>
"James Monroe." Encyclopaedia Britannica, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-Monroe>
"James Monroe." History.com, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/james-monroe>
"Thomas Jefferson." Biography.com, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <https://www.biography.com/people/thomas-jefferson-9353715>
"Thomas Jefferson." Encyclopaedia Britannica, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Jefferson>
"Thomas Jefferson." Encyclopedia of World Biography, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ho-Jo/Jefferson-Thomas.html>

"Thomas Jefferson." History.com, n.a. Nov 07, 2017. <http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/thomas-jefferson> 

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